Canadian First World War
Internment Recognition Fund

Fonds canadien de reconnaissance de l'internement durant
la première guerre mondiale



Sources & Issues

Below you will find a list of these educational materials, many of which can be found in your local public library.

Selected publications are also available for downloading as PDF files.

Internment Resources


D H Avery, ‘Dangerous Foreigners’: European Immigrant Workers and Labour Radicalism in Canada 1896-1932 (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1979)

___, Reluctant Host: Canada’s Response to Immigrant Workers, 1896 – 1994 (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1995)

M. Raoul Boyer, Revolution Anyone? Trotsky in Canada, 1917 (Yesterday Today Publishing, 2021

D J Carter, POW – Behind Canadian Barbed Wire: Alien, Refugee and Prisoner of War Camps in Canada 1914-1946 (rev 2nd edition, Calgary: Eagle Butte Press, 1998)

J Farney and B S Kordan, “Predicament of Belonging: The Status of Enemy Aliens in Canada, 1914: Journal of Canadian Studies, Winter, 2005

M Forsythe and Greg Dickson, From the West Coast to the Western Front, British Columbians and the Great War (Harbour Publishing Co. Ltd., 2014)

R. L. Hinther, J Mochoruk, Editor, Civilian Internment In Canada: Histories And Legacies (U of M Press, 2020)

J B Gregorovich, ed, Ukrainian Canadians in Canada’s Wars: Materials for Ukrainian Canadian History (Toronto: Ukrainian Canadian Research Foundation, 1987)

___, ed, Commemorating An Injustice: Fort Henry and Ukrainian Canadians as “enemy aliens” during the First World War (Kingston: Kashtan Press, 1994)

B S Kordan, Enemy Aliens, Prisoners of War: Internment in Canada During the Great War (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002)

B S Kordan and C Mahovsky, A Bare and Impolitic Right: Internment and Ukrainian-Canadian Redress (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2004)

B S Kordan and P Melnycky, In the Shadow of the Rockies: Diary of the Castle Mountain Internment Camp, 1915-1917 (Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1991)

B S Kordan, No Free Man: Canada, the Great War, and the Enemy Alien Experience (McGill: Queen’s University Press, 2016)

L Y Luciuk, Internment Operations: The Role of Old Fort Henry in World War 1 (Kingston: Delta, 1980)

___, ed, Righting An Injustice: The Debate Over Redress for Canada’s First National Internment Operations ( Toronto: Justinian Press, 1994)

___, Searching for Place: Ukrainian Displaced Persons, Canada and the Migration of Memory (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2nd rev ed, 2001)

___, In Fear of the Barbed Wire Fence: Canada’s First National Internment Operations and the Ukrainian Canadians, 1914-1920 (Kingston: Kashtan Press, 2001)

L Y Luciuk and B S Kordan, Creating A Landscape: A Geography of Ukrainians in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989)

L Y Luciuk and Ron Sorobey, Konowal: A Canadian Hero ( Kingston: Kashtan Press, 2000)

L Y Luciuk and B Sydoruk, “In My Charge” – The Canadian Internment Camp Photographs of Sergeant William Buck (Kingston: Kashtan Press, 1997)

L Y Luciuk with N Yurieva and R Zakaluzny, comps, Roll Call: Lest We Forget (Kingston: Kashtan Press, 1999)

M Mandres, A Memory Reclaimed, A Commission Fulfilled: Serbs and Romanians During Canada’s First National Internment Operations of 1914-1920 (Kashtan Press, 2022)

Stefan Manz, Panikos Panayi, Matthew Stibbe, Internment during the First World War
A Mass Global Phenomenon, (Routledge, 2018)

O Martynowych, Ukrainians in Canada: The Formative Years, 1891-1924 (Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1991)

P Melnycky, Badly Treated in Every Way: The Internment of Ukrainians in Quebec During the First World War,” in A Biega and M Diakowsky, eds, The Ukrainian Experience in Quebec (Toronto: Basilian Press, 1994)

M Minenko, Without Just Cause: Canada’s First National Internment Operations,” in L Luciuk & S Hryniuk, eds, Canada’s Ukrainians: Negotiating An Identity (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991)

W Norton, Fernie At War 1914 – 1919 (Caitlin Press, 2017)

P Peppin, “Emergency Legislation and Rights in Canada: The War Measures Act and Civil Liberties,” Queen’s Law Journal, Kingston: Faculty of Law, Volume 18, 1, 1993

J Petryshyn, Peasants in the Promised Land: Canada and the Ukrainians, 1891-1914 Toronto: James Lorimer Company, 1985)

A Sendzikas, Stanley Barracks: Toronto’s Military Legacy (Natural Heritage Books, 2011)

S Semchuk, The Stories Were Not Told (University of Alberta Press, 2018)

I Spaar, Swiss Immigration to Canada (Swiss General of Switzerland, 2013)

F Swyripa and J H Thompson, eds, Loyalties in Conflict: Ukrainians in Canada During the Great War (Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1982)

J H Thompson, The Harvest of War: The Prairie West, 1914-1918 (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1978)

B Waiser, Park Prisoners: The Untold Story of Canada’s National Parks, 1915-1946 (Saskatoon: Firth House, 1995)

Children’s & Young Adult Literature/Plays:

Karen Autio, Sabotage (Sononis Press, 2013)

Sylvie Brien, Spirit Lake (Gallimard  (ÉDITIONS), 2008)

Pam Clark, Kalyna (Stonehouse Publishing, 2016)

Dan Ebbs, Home and Native Land: a play in two acts (Woodstock, Ontario: Cardinal House, 2005

Robert Fothergill, Detaining Mr. Trotsky (Toronto: Playwrights Guild of Canada, 1987)

Rita Feutl, Rescue in the Rockies (Coteau Books, 2019)

Glen Huser, Firebird, 2020

Laura Langston, Lesia’s Dream (Toronto: Harper Collins, 2003)

Kassandra Luciuk (Author), Nicole Marie Burton (Illustrator)
Enemy Alien: A Graphic History of Internment in Canada During the First World War
(Between the Lines, 2020)

Barbara Sapergia, Blood and Salt (Saskatchewan: Coteau Books, 2012)

Danny Schur, Strike! The Musical (Winnipeg, 2005)

Marsha Forchuk Skrypuch, Silver Threads (Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 2004) with illustrations by M Martchenko

Marsha Forchuk Skrypuch, Dear Canada, Prisoners in the Promised Land. (Scholastic Canada Ltd., 2007)

Marsha Forchuk Skrypuch, Dance of the Banished. (Pajama Press Inc., 2014)



Unspoken Territory by Marusya Bociurkiw (Vancouver, Moving Images, 2000)

La Fuite by Robert Cornellier (1995)

Freedom Had A Price: Canada’s First National Internment Operation by Yurij Luhovy, (National Film Board of Canada, 1994)

Jajo’s Secret by James Motluk (Guerrilla Films, 2009)

The Camps webseries by Armistice Films

That Never Happened, Canada’s First National Internment Operations
By Armistice Films


Donna Creighton, “Look! Eighty Thousand Voices” 2004, (Hania Metulynsky, bandura), Shipwreckerds Production

Maria Dunn, “In The Shadow of the Rockies/As I Walk Through Canada,” (Brian Cherwick, tsymbaly), 2004 (on the CD “We Were Good People,” Distant Whisper Music),

Art Work and Art Books:

Kerri Parnell, Pause In Plight, National Internment Art Exhibit, 2020

Teachers’ Guides:

Don McNair, Vernon Internment Camp 1914-1920 (2018)

Don Quinlan, ed, “Enemy Aliens,” World Affairs Defining Canada’s Role (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1998)

Social Program Educational Group, Queen’s University, “Ukrainian Canadians, “World War I, Canadians in the Global Community: War, Peace and Security (CRB Heritage Project: Toronto, Prentice Hall Ginn, 1997)

Douglas Davis, Prisoners of Prejudice: Canada’s first national internment operations, 1914-1920. (Edmonton Public Schools, 2011)

Marsha Skrypuch, Silver Threads Teacher’s Guide

Marsh Skrypuch, Prisoners in the Promised Land Teacher’s Guide

Updated: January 2023